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  1. Yes, this is correct. Even easier than a new (but functionally identical) order is adding a line item to an existing order via option exercise.
  2. Assume you have no constraints or nuance of any type, can do whatever you like here, and are simply choosing between a) New order for CY2, or b) Mod existing order to add funds for CY2. Then I think a) is the better practice. Its simpler. The documentation is cleaner and easier to follow. Doing a mod, perhaps to avoid the paperwork involved in issuing a new order, is adding complexity. And that's something to avoid. Of course, there is no such thing as "no constraints." The most obvious one is what you referenced - Severable services contracts obligating appropriated funds cannot have a PoP exceeding one year.
  3. Very skeptical about that IG report. A single manufacturer of specialized parts purchased mostly, perhaps exclusively, by the US Government. The buyer procures these items in small quantities as needed (so it seems from IG report). There is a large risk / opportunity cost for the manufacturer here. Accordingly, a large profit when it pays off. Don't like those high prices? Don't buy in the least cost-effective way possible. I doubt cost analysis accounts for the opportunity cost of the manufacturer. Must be some (likely substantial) cost for the manufacturer to keep making and storing these widgets, just so the (single?) buyer can purchase a few whenever they need them. Monopsony - Monopoly pricing is going to be messy and probably sub-optimal for one or both parties. Econ 101 here. Analogy: A family member has a really nice vintage Porsche. He needed some rando part for the engine. From what I gather, this part is exclusively used by a few models of Porsche made in the early 2000s. This part (forget its name or what it does, not a car guy) is literally a small piece of metal - no moving parts. Weights a pound or two. The material costs couldn't have been more than a few dollars. The Porsche mechanic in our area had one in stock, and charged (approximately, this was a few years ago) $200. $200 for a $5 part. $5 for the part. $195 for having a small retail warehouse of obscure German car parts located within a short driving distance. This would be excess profit, no?
  4. This is a ridiculous case. The underlying but obvious and insurmountable constraint is the cost and effort involved in switching from Microsoft to a different platform. USDA can't afford to consider other alternatives. Likely the CO found this so obvious and trivial that they didn't consider stating it in the D&F.
  5. As an addendum to this discussion, True story about the last time I had to deal with travel on a contract. Travel was a topic of discussions with the contractor and program office. It was all very confusing to them, and if I am being honest, to me too. We were going around in circles, not entirely unlike this thread. Ultimately, the contractor proposed that travel should just be FFP. We crunched numbers and came to something like $1,500 per "travel event." If the contractor flew on a private jet, we don't care. If they eat ramen and stayed in their sister's spare bedroom, we also don't care. Made program happy, because this makes travel like an optional FFP line item - something they know and understand (unlike ODC). This was a commercial open-market services & software contract valued at about a $1M. Did not use FAR 15 procedures. So far as I could tell, what we did was legal and compliant, and resulted in a fair and reasonable price. Although I wouldn't bet my paycheck on that.
  6. OK, CO's aren't avaricious. They are risk-averse. Pro Tip 1: If we are talking about a commercial contract, don't call it "G&A." As others have noted, very explicitly cite 212-4 Alt 1. Pro Tip 2: When conducting price analysis for a competitive commercial contract, which includes travel as part of T&M line item, nobody cares about your "G&A" rate on travel. Honestly, just make it zero, and mark up some other T or M element (legally and following the rules, of course), so net change is zero. For the record, CO here who dislikes travel as ODC in my commercial contracts. Because: 1) The line item including travel is now T&M, which triggers some rather onerous procedures per 12.207 (b). In particular, getting HCA approval if the PoP > 3 years. makes the contract no longer fixed price. Executive dashboard KPI needles move, in the wrong direction. 2) If the conditions of 12.207 (b) (1) (i) - basically, it must be competitively awarded - cannot be met, then T&M, and therefore travel, is verboten, or its not commercial. 3) I do not like dealing with, and know very little about, indirect costs. For example, G&A vs. Material Handling. What's the difference? Do I even need to care for competitive commercial contracts? I'd rather not think about it at all. 4) My customer, the requiring activity hates, just hates, both obligating money upfront for theoretical travel which may never occur AND not obligating money upfront for actual travel which needs to happen but for which there is no longer sufficient remaining money.
  7. This is what I was going to write, except its already been written. Amen. I have an action right now that I am about to award, this is its actual timeline: Identification of need -> 'acquisition package' to contracting office: Maybe 2 months Receipt of Acquisition Package -> Solicitation: 3 months Solicitation - Award: 2 weeks What is the PALT here?
  8. I suspect DoD just wants better contracting writing software, and felt obligated to add a buzz word. I don't think this document would be much different if AI were swapped out with another trendy tech "Machine Learning CWS" "Blockchain CWS" "Robotic Process Automation CWS" Mark my words, some of us will still be 1102s when we see RFIs for "Open Source CWS" - My opinion is that this should have happened 20 years ago. "Augmented Reality CWS" "Quantum Computing CWS"
  9. Asking for a PPQ from a reference is like asking someone to go out on a date with you. If they don't want to go on a date with you, you shouldn't keep asking them to go on the date with you. Ask someone else.
  10. You're right about the regs. Its allowed (I think). But... The problem is not what any particular reg does or does not state, its what the COR thinks they state. Talking to the COR will be more productive than trying to prove a negative (that the FAR, et all. does not prohibit them doing a PPQ).
  11. Irrespective of what you are buying, three methods to finding an appropriate PSC. 1) Ask the seller. If they are experienced with the federal government, they'll know. 2) Reference previous contracts for the same thing, and see what PSC was used then. In house contracts or FPDS. 3) Punt. Ask Program Office. If particularly important and difficult, ask for help from Legal.
  12. This overlaps with the much ballyhooed 'Smart Contracts.' Which run on the blockchain, the blockchain I tell you, blockchain! /sarcasm Smart contracts execute pre-determined actions when predetermined conditions have been met and verified. Basically, (if -> then) contracts that are entirely outcome driven. Much research these days looking into how smart contracts can be used by Government agencies, and presumably some of that research is about funding and legal authority. Also, https://govlab.hks.harvard.edu/pay-success
  13. See Veterans Healthcare Supply Solutions, Inc. B-409888. Quote, from GSA: "If the procurement at issue is for a single SIN, then it would stand that both/all members of a CTA would need to have the particular SIN on their respective FSS contract." My very unofficial understanding of this protest and how CTA's work is: 1) Despite the quote, my position is that a CTA member who does not hold the referenced SIN isn't necessarily ineligible. The CTA's proposal would need to demonstrate how the CTA member helps provide the solution. Like, for a given HACS need, I could see how a solution may involve closely-related SINs (like CDM or PKI) and have a CTA member who has those SINs, but not the cybersecurity. In contrast, I doubt a CTA member who has a unrelated IT SIN (say, A/V equipment) could legit join a CTA for cybersecurity. 2) This protest is from 2014, and GSA has changed how the schedules work since then, so this reasoning may not be fully valid in 2021. 3) The solicitation matters, since it can customize what types of CTAs can respond. For example, an RFQ may state that all CTA members must hold a specific SIN. 4) There are lots of protests about CTAs.
  14. In terms of the basic legal part, you definitely CAN enact a contract mod to increase the value from $385M to $1B, under the right circumstances. Such as getting the funds to cover the increase, and getting God-level approval for a huge, non-competitive, out-of-scope modification (possibly an equitable adjustment?) that reflects poorly on everyone involved, having OIG parachute in, and other unpleasant things. Basically, you want stuff that you thought would cost $10. And now it seems like it will cost $30. As Vern notes, you have limited options: 1) Get another $20 2) Get only about 1/3 of the stuff you had planned on getting. 3) Pick up your marbles and go home (terminate, find a different means of acquiring the stuff). Quarrelling about whose at fault for the variance between $10 & $30, stalling for time, or being unhappy with situation won't change these options.
  15. As everyone else here has noted, don't mix FAR 15 and FAR 8.4. Vern's quoted GAO decision has the key phrase - " fair and equitable." What's important is not so much what the CO tells to one particular offeror, but rather how the CO treats the offerors with respect to each other. Whatever criteria the CO uses to engage with one vendor should be used for all vendors. This isn't complicated, nor does this criteria need to be mechanistically implemented. The CO's criteria could be quite straight-forward 'I'm not going to bother telling offerors about 'weaknesses' that are unlikely to have an impact on who gets awarded." In your case, what the CO is doing regarding 'discussions,' while not the preferred method (using FAR 15 procedures), does appear to be 'fair and reasonable' because they are treating the offerors the same. Usual caveats apply.
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