One might think that when an electronic proposal is received by a government server before the solicitation’s deadline, the proposal isn’t late. A government server is under government control, so the proposal is timely, right?
Not necessarily, at least the way the GAO sees it. As one contractor recently learned, waiting until the last minute to submit a proposal electronically carries significant risk that the proposal will not be considered timely, even if the proposal reaches the government server in time.
Peers Health, B-413557.3 (March 16, 2017) involved a Navy RFQ for occupational health disability and treatment guidelines. Quotations were to be submitted no later than 12:00 p.m. EST on November 28, 2016. The RFQ stated that quotations were to be submitted via email to a certain point of contact, and at an email address identified in the solicitation. Alternatively, offerors could submit their proposals by regular or overnight mail.
The Solicitation incorporated FAR 52.212-1 (Instructions to Offerors – Commercial Items), which provides, among other things, that proposals not timely received will not be considered for award. Notably, FAR 52.212-1 provides the following exceptions under which the government may accept late proposals:
(A) If [the proposal] was transmitted through an electronic commerce method authorized by the solicitation, it was received at the initial point of entry to the Government infrastructure not later than 5:00 p.m. one working day prior to the date specified for receipt of offers; or
(B) There is acceptable evidence to establish that it was received at the Government installation designated for receipt of offers and was under the Government’s control prior to the time set for receipt of offers. . . .
FAR 52.212-1(f)(2)(i). As the regulation explains, proposals received after the deadline for proposal submission will be considered timely if they are submitted electronically the day before the submission deadline, or if the government received the proposal and was in control of it prior to the submission deadline.
Peers submitted its quotation by email at 11:59 a.m. on November 28, 2016—one minute before the deadline. While the government server received the submission at 11:59 a.m., Peers’ email did not reach its final destination (the point of contact identified in the RFQ) until 3:49 p.m. GAO did not explain what caused the lengthy delay in transmission from the server to the Navy point of contact.
The Navy eliminated Peers from the competition, stating that Peers’ quotation was untimely. After Peers learned of the Navy’s decision, it filed a GAO bid protest.
Peers argued that under FAR 52.212-1(f)(2)(i)(B), its proposal was timely because the email was received by the government’s server at 11:59 a.m. As such, Peers contended, its proposal was eligible for the timeliness exemption under FAR 52.212-1(f)(2)(i)(B) because it was “received at the government installation designated for receipt of offers and was under the Government’s control prior to the time set for receipt of offers . . . .”
GAO was not convinced. GAO explained that in an earlier case, Sea Box, Inc., B-291056, 202 CPD ¶ 181 (Comp. Gen. Oct. 31, 2002), GAO had ruled that only FAR 52.212-1(f)(2)(i)(A) applied to electronically submitted proposals because it spoke directly to the issue of electronic submission. GAO concluded that applying the broader government control exception found in FAR 52.212(f)(2)(i)(B) to electronic submission would make the specific day prior requirements for electronic submission redundant. To the dismay of Sea Box, GAO concluded the government control exception does not apply to electronic submissions.
Applying its reasoning from Sea Box, GAO concluded Peers’ proposal submission was untimely because it was neither received by the intended recipient prior to the closing date for proposal submission, nor received before 5:00 p.m. the working day prior to proposals being due. As such, Peers’ proposal was properly eliminated from competition as untimely, even though it had reached a government server before the deadline.
Interestingly, the Court of Federal Claims disagrees with the GAO’s reasoning in Sea Box (and, presumably, in Peers Health, as well). In Watterson Construction Company v. United States, 98 Fed. Cl. 84 (2012), the Court carefully analyzed the regulatory history of the exceptions, and concluded that the “government control” exception does apply to emailed proposals. The Court has since confirmed its ruling, most recently in Federal Acquisition Services Team, LLC v. United States, No. 15-78C (Feb. 16, 2016).
In our view here at SmallGovCon, the Court has the better position: and not just because arguing with a federal judge isn’t usually a good idea. The regulation states that a late proposal may be accepted where the electronic commerce “or” the government control exception applies. The plain language of the regulation (and the Court’s careful study of the underlying history) suggest to us that Peers should have won its protest.
As we’ve discussed on this blog before, it’s bad news when the GAO and Court disagree about an important matter of government contracting. True, the GAO isn’t required to follow the Court’s rules. However, a bid protest shouldn’t turn on which forum the protester selects. My colleagues and I hope that the GAO reconsiders its position in future protests.
Perhaps Peers will take its case to the Court and obtain a different result. For now, contractors should be aware that under the GAO’s current precedent, the only way to ensure that an electronic proposal submission is timely received is to file before 5:00 p.m. the day before proposals are due. If the proposal is submitted later, and gets stuck on the government’s server, a potential protester should make plans to skip the GAO and head directly to the Court of Federal Claims.